Generally, glucose content in European chestnuts is very low and ranges from zero to traces. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. sativa.. In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. Delivery is free. Hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tannins leads to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid. Young trees can also suffer from squirrel damage. The tree requires a mild climate and adequate moisture for good growth and a good nut harvest. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K. Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar; which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content. Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … Bark: Its bark has long diagonal fissures.  It is a heat-loving tree which needs a long vegetation period. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. The leaves are quite glossy and there are about 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins.  Heat appears to be the most influencing factor when it comes to decreasing the organic acid content. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_sativa&oldid=991269411, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The sugar content is also affected by the high temperatures. nut shell than in extracts of eucalyptus bark. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. The seeds develop inside the prickly, green seed cases.Identified in winter by: the bark which has fissures that spiral upwards around the tree. , The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil.  It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. Doing so is time-saving and economical, but it's possible that some fruits get injured, and a big initial investment is needed. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés. , Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree) is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. , Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut.  The first charcoal remains of sweet chestnut only date from around 850-950 B.C., making it very difficult to infer a precise origin history. Sweet chestnut can grow up to 9m plus in girth. Note: sweet chestnut should not be confused with horse chestnut (the conker tree) whose wood is white in colour and inferior for joinery purposes.  Some cultivars only produce one large seed per cupule, while others produce up to three seeds. in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale", "Genetic structure of Castanea sativa in Turkey: evidence of a hybrid zone", 10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<621::AID-JQS524>3.0.CO;2-L, "Reworking the idea of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. SC038885). Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. No other evidence of sweet chestnut in Roman Britain has been confirmed. Registered office: Kempton Way, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6LL. It can live to more than 2,000 years of age in natural conditions, see the poetically-named "hundred-horse chestnut" in eastern Sicily for example. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. , Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. It is used to make furniture, bar… Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. Those ba… With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating.  The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. In other European countries, C. sativa has only been introduced recently, for example in Slovakia or the Netherlands.. We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor.  Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm. Gnarled bark of old sweet chestnut tree trunk (Castanea sativa) in green woodland, National Forest, Derbyshire, England, UK Detail of the bark of a horse chestnut tree eroded by time, with textures and scratches on the background. Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. In contrast to a cold storage system, where the fruits are stored at low temperatures in untreated air, the controlled environment method avoids flesh hardening which negatively impacts the processability of the product.. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood.  Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. Their high level of starch is similar to that of wheat and twice as high as the potato. Discover The Sweet Chestnut Share a family meal or a quiet dinner at The Sweet Chestnut in Dunfermline. Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. Sweet chestnut is native to southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. 1982873. About 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a pointed tip and a serrated or toothed edge. Figure 2 shows, by both MTT (a) and flow cytometry analysis (b), that CSM extract did not exert any toxic effect on cultured primary … 2013;2013:471790. doi: 10.1155/2013/471790.  Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas.  While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. , Castanea sativa is considered as having very interesting nutritional characteristics. The horse chestnut bears similar looking seeds (conkers) in a similar seed case, which are not palatable to humans. Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake.  Once cooked, chestnuts acquire a sweet flavour and a floury texture similar to the sweet potato. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut.  On the other hand, the consumer must consider that roasting, boiling or frying has a big impact on the nutritional profile of chestnut. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. Other common names include "Spanish chestnut", or "marron" (French for "chestnut"). After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. The sweet chestnut is a native of the Mediterranean region and the Romans probably introduced the sweet chestnut to Britain for its nuts (seeds) which are quite edible raw or cooked and can be made into flour or used as a coffee bean substitute.  Further clues pointing to this theory can be found in the work of Pliny the Elder, who mentions only Greek colonies in connection with sweet chestnut cultivation. Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. Roman soldiers were given chestnut porridge before going into battle. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress.  Before planting, seeds must be stratified at 2-3 °C so germination can start 30–40 days later. The trunk is mostly straight with branching starting at low heights. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No.  The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. These trees can develop vast girths of up to 2m in diameter.  In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No.  The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. Leaves are oblong with a pointed tip and toothed or serrated edge. However, the ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name Castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts.  Their large genetic diversity and different cultivars are exploited for uses such as flour, boiling, roasting, drying, sweets or wood. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. Oxidative Damage. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients.  Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C.  The maximal altitude is strongly dependent on the climate. Cooking dry in an oven or fire normally helps remove this skin. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. 79.  The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), which has similar nuts, but those of the sweet chestnut are smaller and found in clusters. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. The most widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a process in which the sweet chestnuts are immersed in water for nine days. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Article by Ursula Stopka. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. However, according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer". Long-distance spread of C. parasitica can occur through movements of infected sweet chestnut plants, wood or bark in trade.Once bark has been colonised, the mycelium of the pathogen is reported to survive in this tissue for up to 10 months, even if it has been air dried.  Ink disease is infesting trees mostly in humid soils, with the mycelium invading the root and resulting in wilting of the leaf. ), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil. Flowers and Fruits. All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years. There is also a small risk of transmission by fruits or seeds.Locally, the spores of C. parasitica are spread by wind and water, but might a… Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? , Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. 6 In modern herbal medicine, sweet chestnut’s bark, leaves, flowers and nuts are considered to be strengthening, calming, astringent, and digestive, even though the tree is not so well used today. Inside, there is an edible, creamy-white part developed from the cotyledon.. The bark resembles a large twisted steel cable. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. Sweet chestnut is found commonly throughout woods and copses in Britain. 301, 643 CE). Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. The flowers provide an important source of nectar and pollen for bees and other insects, while red squirrels eat the nuts. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Countries like England, Croatia, Turkey and Georgia only have a partially developed sweet chestnut tradition due to geography or history. A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr. The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. … , Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. , The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. The pictures are pretty informative and there is a separate gallery of all the pictures related to this.  Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. June 2020. The sap wood is narrow and generally usable where a waney edge feature … Bark, sweet chestnut tree.  Carbonised sweet chestnuts were found in the Roman Villa Torre Annunziata, destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. However, setting up the nets is work intensive. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. Sweet Chestnut Bark. Edible chestnuts or Sweet chestnuts (European chestnut (Castanea sativa); American chestnut (Castanea dentata)), but not horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum (also called Buckeye)), are safe to consume raw with few or no side effects. 294344) and in Scotland (No. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. 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Hair shampoo can be seen particularly in the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet is..., registered in England and Wales ( No and fairs by street vendors with mobile static... Enterprises ) Limited, registered in England ( No in an oven or fire helps!